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      2. 苗圃田間自走式電動雙軌運輸機設計與試驗





        廣東省科技計劃重點研發項目(2019B020223001;2020B090926004); 廣東省現代農業產業技術體系創新團隊(2020KJ120-CJXG)

        Design and test of a self-propelled electric double-track transporter for nursery field

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          為實現苗圃田間果樹缽苗的快速搬運,研制了一種適用于苗圃田間的自走式電動雙軌運輸機。針對運輸機的應用環境、果樹缽苗質量大小等需求,分析提出運輸機應具備的裝載量、電機功率、運輸速度等設計參數;并根據技術參數要求,提出運輸機的總體結構并對關鍵部件進行設計;最后,對運輸機進行了實驗室與田間試驗。試驗結果顯示,運輸機載重能力為750 kg,空載每百米能耗為9.16 W·h,滿載每百米能耗為27.6 W·h,運行速度為0.564~0.718 m/s,運輸機從起步到勻速行駛所用時間小于2.5 s,緊急制動距離小于0.05 m,振動加速度振幅總體小于0.4 g。以上結果表明,研制的運輸機可以滿足實現苗圃田間作業需求,可以有效提高作業效率、降低勞動強度。


          In order to realize the rapid transportation of the pot seedlings of fruit trees in the nursery fields,a self-propelled electric double-track transporter for the nursery fields was developed. According to the application environment of the transporter,the quality of pot seeding of fruit trees and other requirements,the main technical parameters including the the loading capacity,operating speed,remote control distance,and motor battery was proposed. According to the requirements of technical parameters. The overall structure of the transporter was determined and the key components such as vibration damping,leveling and limit mechanism were designed. Among them,the overall structure of the transporter was mainly composed of a cargo trolley and a traction head used for traction of the cargo trolley,and which had the functions of obstacle avoidance,remote control and automatic walking. This transporter chooses a customized lithium iron phosphate battery as its power supply. The battery dimensions were 440,235,and 230 mm in length,width and height respectively. The voltage was 24 V,the battery mass was 22.4 kg,and the battery capacity was 220 A·h. The driving mode of the transporter was a four-wheel drive direct-drive traction head to pull the cargo trolley to slide on the track through the traction component. The circuit based on PLC control was designed,which includes wiring module,insurance module,travel switch circuit module,motor controller module,remote control module,indicator light module,obstacle avoidance module and encoder control. The vibration damping and leveling mechanism of the transporter was fixed between the support leg and the bracket. Each leveling mechanism was composed of 4 springs,a perforated splint fixed on the frame,4 sleeve shafts,4 positioning and 4 screw nuts. The limit mechanism of the transporter includes a universal bearing to prevent rail collision,an anti-rollover wheel to prevent rollover,a load-bearing pulley or a driving friction wheel,and its function was to limit the transporter to travel along the track. After the design was completed,tests in both lab and nursery fields were carried out. The results of test showed that the transporter can adapt to the muddy working environment of the nursery fields,with a load capacity of 750 kg. According to the outdoor test,every 100 m of the transporter forward,the energy consumption of no-load was 9.16 W·h,while the full-load was 27.6 W·h,and the running speed of the transporter was 0.564-0.718 m/s. It took less than 2.5 s for the transporter from starting to a uniform speed,less than 2.2 m for the brake glide distance of the transporter and less than 0.05 m for the emergency brake distance. Additionally,the vibration acceleration amplitude of the transporter was less than 0.4 g in general. In conclusion,the transporter was designed and manufactured,which can improve the efficiency of transportation,reduce labor intensity,and ensure safety during transportation.



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        • 收稿日期:2020-08-03
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        • 在線發布日期: 2020-12-01
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