廣東省科技計劃重點研發項目（2019B020223001； 2019B020214001）; 茶葉產業創新團隊設施與機械化崗位專家(2019LM1119); 廣東省科技計劃項目（2017A090905020）
針對目前山地林果茶園挖穴作業人工勞動強度大和作業效率低的問題，設計了一種具有行駛動力的山地林果茶園電動自走式挖穴機。該挖穴機能自動完成鉆頭進給行程與復位行程。田間試驗結果表明，該挖穴機單次作業平均挖穴時間為50.7 s，單次有效挖穴作業能耗為6.38 W·h，施肥穴平均深度為392.5 mm，施肥穴平均直徑為303 mm，行走速度為1.237 m/s，能夠順利通過15°斜坡。挖穴作業過程中鉆頭的進給與回程運動均無需人工操作，可提高工作效率，降低勞動強度，并保證挖穴操作中的安全性。
Aiming at the problems of high labor intensity and low work efficiency in digging holes in mountain forests and fruit tea gardens,this research designed an electric self-propelled hole digging machine with driving power in mountain forests and fruit tea gardens. The machine has the characteristics of driving power,automatic completion of the feed stroke and reset stroke of the drill bit,simple and compact overall structure,and the ability to stably carry out digging operations on a 15° slope. In terms of overall structure,the digging machine is composed of a digging mechanism,an automatic lifting mechanism,a walking mechanism,a supporting mechanism,a control system and a frame. Among them,the digging mechanism is composed of a 48 V DC motor,a conversion head and a drill bit; the automatic lifting mechanism is composed of a power transmission system,a guide mechanism and a stroke limiting device; the walking mechanism is composed of a 24 V hub motor and a universal wheel; the supporting mechanism is composed of movable The supporting frame,connecting rod and adjusting device are composed; the frame is formed by welding 30 mm×30 mm square steel. In terms of digging performance test,the 5-point sampling method was used to select 5 test points in 2 citrus orchard test sites and 1 tea plantation test site for testing. Among them,the depth of the citrus test ground was 20 cm,and the average soil moisture content was measured. They are 24.30% and 18.49%. The average soil compactness is 437 and 837 kPa,respectively; the soil depth of the tea garden test site is 20 cm,the average soil moisture content is 22.01%,and the average soil compaction is 372 kPa. In terms of climbing performance test,the slopes with gradients of 5.4°,8.4° and 15.2° were selected for the climbing test,starting from the junction of the straight road and the slope,measuring the slope of 9 m with a tape measure,and selecting the next 5 m as the test road section. Stop the digging machine on a straight road close to the ramp. After the walking motor starts to rotate,open the switch to climb the slope. Use a stopwatch to measure the time the digging machine passes the test section. In terms of the maximum walking speed test,the wheels reached a stable maximum speed when walking about 6 m on the orchard road through the preliminary test. In order to reduce the road slope error,the test is carried out by taking the average value of the round-trip measurement. The first 10 m and the last 10 m are the acceleration section or the deceleration section,and the 10-30 m is the test section. Taking into account the effect of accidental errors,6 repeated tests were performed,and the time to pass the test section was measured with a stopwatch. The test results show that the average digging time for a single operation of the digging machine is 50.7 s,which is 1.77 times faster than the manual hoe digging; the energy consumption of a single effective digging operation is 6.38 W·h,the average fertilization depth is 392.5 mm,and the average fertilization is The hole diameter is 303 mm,which meets the agronomic requirements for fertilization; the walking speed is 1.237 m/s,and it can smoothly pass a 15° slope,which meets the actual operation requirements of hole digging in mountain fruit tea gardens. The innovation of this research lies in that the feed and return movement of the drill bit during the digging operation does not require manual operation,which can improve work efficiency,reduce labor intensity,and ensure the safety of the digging operation.