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      2. 驅動犁翻與反轉旋耕組合式油菜直播種床整理機設計與試驗
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        華中農業大學工學院

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        國家油菜產業技術體系專項(CARS-12)、湖北省自然科學基金(2019CFB153)和湖北省農業科技創新行動專項


        Design and Experiment on Driven Disc Ploughing and Reverse Rotary Tilling Integrated Machine for Rapeseed Seedbed Preparation
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          摘要:

          針對稻油輪作區秸稈茬高量大、土壤粘重坂結且含水量波動大的作業工況,結合冬油菜直播對廂面平整、種床細碎、秸稈還田和油菜種植需排水防漬開畦溝的農藝要求,考慮單一功能耕作機械多次進地作業不利于爭搶農時并壓實土壤的生產實際,提出了適應于油菜種植的“犁組左翻埋茬、刀輥反轉碎土、犁鏵兩側開溝”的種床整理工藝方案,并研制了一種驅動犁翻與反轉旋耕組合式油菜直播種床整理機。該機主要由驅動圓盤犁組、反轉旋耕刀輥、開畦溝前犁、開畦溝后犁、平土托板等部件組成,可實現廂面平整、種床細碎、秸稈還田、開溝作畦等功能,分析了各耕作部件的空間布局設計原則,確定了驅動圓盤犁組與反轉旋耕刀輥的結構參數與工作參數。田間試驗結果表明:該機作業后的種床耕深、畦溝溝深、畦溝溝寬、廂面平整度、種床碎土率以及秸稈埋覆率的均值分別為173.2mm、190.2mm、401.4mm、11.6mm、95.9%和90.2%,種床耕深穩定性系數、畦溝的溝深穩定性系數和溝寬穩定性系數的均值分別為85.6%、86.7%和84.6%,滿足油菜機械化直播種床整理農藝要求。

          Abstract:

          Aiming at the working conditions of rice stubble with high stubble, heavy soil adhesion and large fluctuation of water content in the rice-rapeseed rotation area, combined with the agronomic requirements that surface flatting, seedbed crushing, straw returning to the field and water draining to the furrow for winter rapeseed direct-seeding, considering the production practice that the single function tillage machine is not conducive to scramble for farming time and will compacting soil as it repeatedly working in the fields, a kind of seedbed preoaration technology scheme of "left-turn disc plough group burying stubble, reverse rotary knife roll crushing soil, side mounted plough ditching furrow" was put forward, and a kind of driven disc ploughing and reverse rotary tilling integrated machine for rapeseed seedbed preparation was designed. The machine is mainly composed of driving disc plough group, reverse rotary blade roller, front ditch plough and rear ditch plough and soil-flated plate, which can realize the functions of surface flatting, seedbed crushing, straw burying and furrow ditching. The spatial layout design principle of each tillage component was analyzed, and the structure parameters and working parameters of drivin disc plough group and reverse rotary blade roller were determined. Field experiment showed that: The average values of tillage depth, furrow depth, furrow width, compartment flatness, the rate of soil pulverizing and straw burying in seedbed after preparation machine operation were 173.2mm, 190.2mm, 401.4mm, 11.6mm, 95.9% and 90.2% respectively; The average values of stability coefficient of tillage depth, furrow depth and furrow width were 85.6%, 86.7% and 84.6% respectively. And these can meet the agronomic requirements of seedbed preparation for rapeseed mechanized direct-seeding.

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        • 收稿日期:2020-05-25
        • 最后修改日期:2020-07-22
        • 錄用日期:2020-07-27
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