National key research and development projects（2018YFD0200900）;Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs waste fertilizer utilization key laboratory project（No. KLFAW201901）
采用田間定位試驗（始于2011年）研究施用磷肥對稻-油輪作土壤磷組分及微生物多樣性的影響。試驗選取NK（-P）和NPK（+P）2個處理，將土層分為0~10、10~20、20~30和30~40 cm采樣和分析。各土層有效磷、全磷和有機磷含量按常規方法測定；土壤無機磷組分采用化學連續提取法測定，并利用Illumina-MiSeqPE250平臺進行表層土壤（0~10 cm）微生物高通量測序。結果表明，與對照（-P處理）相比，長期施用磷肥（+P處理）能顯著增加各土層總磷、無機磷和有效磷含量，而有機磷含量處理間差異不明顯。從土層有效磷含量來看，施用磷肥可顯著增加0~10 cm和10~20 cm兩個土層磷含量；對于底層20~30 cm和30~40 cm的影響效果不顯著。與對照相比，長期施用磷肥會降低細菌和真菌菌群的Alpha多樣性，菌群群落結構發生明顯改變。在細菌門水平上，綠彎菌門、酸桿菌門和變形菌門為優勢菌門，磷肥施用后表層土壤綠彎菌門和酸桿菌門相對豐度增加，而變形菌門相對豐度降低。在真菌門水平上，擔子菌門和子囊菌門為優勢菌門，磷肥施用后表層土壤子囊菌門相對豐度降低，而擔子菌門相對豐度增加。與對照相比，磷肥施用雖然引起耕層土壤中細菌和真菌數量在各分類單元顯著降低，但從屬分類水平來看，優勢菌群的相對豐度也隨之降低。冗余分析結果表明鋁磷、鐵磷含量與表層土壤優勢細菌和真菌的豐度密切相關?？梢?，長期磷素虧缺會誘導微生物數量增加以活化土壤養分，而充足的磷肥供應則能夠滿足作物養分需求，維持土壤微生物群落動態平衡。因此，有必要就整個輪作系統進行磷肥施用優化，促進土壤磷素活化和釋放，從而減少磷肥用量，提高其吸收利用率。
A field experiment was conducted in 2011 to study the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application on the phosphorus fractions and microbial diversity of rice - rape crop rotation. Two treatments, NK (-P) and NPK (+P), were selected for the experiment. The soil layer was divided into 0~10、10~20、20~30 and 30~40 cm for sampling and analysis. Soil available P, total P and organic P were determined by conventional analytical methods. Chemical continuous extraction method was used to determine the inorganic P fractions in the soil samples, and Illumina-miseqpe250 platform was used for high-throughput sequencing of surface soil (0~10 cm) microorganisms. The results showed that, compared with the CK (-P treatment), long-term application of P fertilizer (+P) could significantly increase the content of total P, inorganic P and available P in each soil layer, but the organic P content did not increase significantly. From the perspective of available P content in soil layer, P content in soil layer of 0~10 cm and 10~20 cm could be significantly increased by application of P fertilizer, but the effect on the bottom layer of 20~30 cm and 30~40 cm was not obvious. Compared with -P treatment, long-term application of P fertilizer reduced the Alpha of microbial community diversity and changed the structure of microbial community. At the level of phylum, the dominant bacteria were Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria were increased, while that of Proteobacteria decreased. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant phylum, the relative abundance of Ascomycota decreased and that of Basidiomycota increased. Compared with CK, although the application of P fertilizer caused a significant decrease in the number of bacteria and fungi in the layer soil in each taxa, the relative abundance of the dominant flora also decreased from the perspective of the genus level. The results of redundancy analysis showed that the content of Al-P and Fe-P was closely related to the abundance of various bacteria and fungi. It could be seen that long-term phosphorus deficiency would induce an increase in the number of microorganisms to activate soil nutrients, and a sufficient supply of phosphorus fertilizer would meet crop nutrient requirements and maintain the dynamic balance of soil microbial communities. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the application of P fertilizer in the entire crop rotation system to promote the activation and release of soil phosphorus, thereby reducing the amount of P fertilizer and improving its recovery rate.