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      2. 磷鋅配施對水稻生長、產量和養分吸收分配的影響
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        作者單位:

        華中農業大學

        作者簡介:

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        中圖分類號:

        S143.1

        基金項目:

        國家重點研發計劃“肥料養分推薦方法與限量標準”子課題(2016YFD0200108)


        Effect of combined application of phosphorus and zinc on rice growth, yield production, nutrient uptake and distribution
        Author:
        Affiliation:

        Huazhong Agricultural University

        Fund Project:

        National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0200108)

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          摘要:

          以常規粳稻日本晴和秈型雜交稻廣兩優35為研究材料,設置不同磷和鋅水平交互處理的大田小區試驗,分析各生育期水稻的生物量,成熟期產量及構成因素,各部位磷、鋅、氮和鉀的含量、累積量和分配比例。結果表明,不同水平的磷與鋅配施對水稻的生長和產量形成以及養分的吸收分配具有協同效應或是拮抗效應,不同水稻品種表現出不同的磷鋅互作效應。在中(80 kg/hm2)、低磷(40 kg/hm2)水平下,增施鋅肥對水稻的生物量和產量具有促進效應,但在高磷(120 kg/hm2)水平下,增施鋅肥反而降低水稻生物量。磷鋅配施下,千粒重和結實率的提高是產量提高的主要原因。適宜水平的磷鋅配施不僅提高了植株中磷和鋅的含量和累積量,促進磷和鋅向生長中心分配,同時還提高了氮和鉀的含量和累積量,促進氮向生長中心分配,這可能是水稻產量提高的主要生理機制。

          Abstract:

          Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) are both essential elements for plant growth and development. There are strong relationships between different nutrients that changing one or more nutrients in the growth medium affects the concentrations of many other nutrients in plants. Phosphorus in the form of Pi can influence the mobility and bioavailability of many metal elements such as iron, manganese, copper, and Zn. Early studies performed in various crop species indicate the existence of a negative relationship between Pi and Zn accumulation in plants. In this study, the indica hybrid rice cultivar Guangliangyou 35 and conventional japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare were treated with combined application of three Zn levels and four P levels in field trials to investigate the effects of combinations of P and Zn on rice growth and yield production, as well as the nutrient utilization. We analyzed the shoot dry weight at different growth stages, the yield and its components at mature stage as well as the P, Zn, N and K concentrations, accumulations and distributions in different organs and tissues. Results showed that the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers had synergistic effect or antagonistic effect on the rice biomass, yield production, the nutrient absorption and distribution. Under the middle- and low P levels, the proper application of Zn increased the rice biomass and yield production. However, under the high P level, the application of Zn decreased the biomass. For different rice cultivars, under different P levels, the proper application of Zn increased the yield. The significantly increased 1000-grain weight and fertility determined the increased yield under the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers. The proper combined application of P and Zn fertilizers not only increased the concentrations of P and Zn in rice plant, but also promoted the P and Zn distribution to the productive organ. Additionally, the proper combined application of P and Zn fertilizers also increased the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in rice plant, as well as the distribution of N to the productive organ, which is one of the main physiological mechanisms of increased yield production under the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers.

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        • 收稿日期:2020-09-02
        • 最后修改日期:2020-10-09
        • 錄用日期:2020-10-12
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