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      2. 知識產權視角下農民品種保護的規范構造
        DOI:
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        作者單位:

        1.華中農業大學 文法學院;2.首都經濟貿易大學

        作者簡介:

        通訊作者:

        中圖分類號:

        D923.42;F124.3

        基金項目:

        國家社會科學基金項目“植物新品種知識產權保護困境與制度創新研究”(16BFX168)


        Normative Structure of Protection of Farmers’ Varieties from the Perspective of Intellectual Property
        Author:
        Affiliation:

        1.Huazhong Agricultural University;2.Capital University of Economics and Business

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          摘要:

          農民品種是由一定區域的農民以集體創新的方式,經過長期培育并被證明具有特殊品性的品種,具有群體性、地域性和傳承性。農民品種的價值和所要保護的核心是其所包含的遺傳信息,適合用知識產權制度對其加以保護,但與保護私人創新成果的知識產權制度應有所差異。農民品種的取得應符合較低要求的可識別性,且需經過注冊登記程序。農民品種的保護模式主要包括特別權形式的積極性保護與防御性保護。在特別權保護下,農民品種權權利主體分兩個層次,即靜態的權利歸屬于國家,動態的權利由特定社區農民集體行使。具有集體屬性的農民品種權不得轉讓,但權利人享有基于許可的知情同意權和惠益分享權;同時應設置合理使用、強制許可及保護期限等限制制度,以實現權益平衡,促進植物育種領域的創新。

          Abstract:

          Farmers’ varieties are cultivated by farmers through collective innovation in certain areas for long time, and are proved to be of special quality, they have collective, territorial and inherited attributes. The value of farmers’ varieties and the core of their protection are genetic information they contain. They are suitable for protection by intellectual property systems, but they should be different from intellectual property systems of protecting private innovation. The acquisition of farmers’ varieties should meet condition of identifiability in less demanding, and go through the registration process. The protection modes of farmers’ varieties mainly include positive protection in form of sui generis right and defensive protection. Under protection of sui generis right, subject of farmers’ varieties right is divided into two levels, static right of farmers’ varieties belongs to the state, dynamic right of farmers’ varieties should exercised by the farmer collective of specific community. Farmers’ varieties right with collective attributes shall not be transferable. But obligee could enjoy the rights of informed consent and benefit sharing based on the permission. Some restricted systems should be set up at the same time, such as rational use, compulsory license and protection time limits, in order to achieve the balance of interests, and promote innovations in plant breeding.

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        歷史
        • 收稿日期:2019-09-11
        • 最后修改日期:2020-03-23
        • 錄用日期:2020-05-08
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