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      2. 德國農民合作社考察及其啟示
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        作者:
        作者單位:

        1.中國農業大學 經濟管理學院;2.農業農村部農村合作經濟指導司

        作者簡介:

        通訊作者:

        中圖分類號:

        F13

        基金項目:

        國家外國專家局項目“農民合作社運行管理培訓”(編號P183020009);農業農村部財政項目(人文類)“’互聯網+農民合作社’研究”(編號21086059);農業農村部財政項目(人文類)“農民合作社助力鄉村組織振興研究”(編號10190008)。


        Special investigation and Enlightenment of German farmer cooperatives
        Author:
        Affiliation:

        1.College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University;2.Department of rural cooperative economic guidance, Ministry of agriculture of the people''s Republic of China,

        Fund Project:

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          摘要:

          德國是合作社的發源地之一。本文基于為期兩周的德國合作社專題考察,重點梳理了德國農民合作社的適應性特點、趨勢特征及其社會體系背景??疾彀l現,德國農民合作社具有層級組織體系化完備化、產業類型多樣化專業化、服務內容全面化多元化、日常運行制度化體系化、服務地域穩定化與產業發展有機化等適應性特點以及企業化日益明顯、絕對數量趨于減少、規模實力趨于增強、經營團隊趨于專業、盈余分配趨于多樣等趨勢性特征,遍布全德的農民協會體系、完善的社會保障體系、健全的社會化服務體系以及良好的社會誠信體系構成了驅動和保障農民合作社持續健康發展的“四輪”。最后,總結分析當前我國農民合作社量質增長不同步、成員異質性增加、扶持政策不完善、服務型合作社少、屬性爭論不定等方面問題及其面臨挑戰,借鑒德國經驗提出促進農民合作社質量提升、順應數量下降和企業化發展趨勢、打造驅動我國農民合作社發展的“四輪”、鼓勵農民深度聯合與合作。

          Abstract:

          Germany is one of the birthplaces of cooperatives. Based on a two-week special survey of German cooperatives, this paper focuses on the adaptive characteristics, trend characteristics and social system background of German farmers' cooperatives. It is found that the German farmers' cooperatives have the adaptability characteristics of complete hierarchical organization system, diversified and specialized industrial types, comprehensive and diversified service content, institutionalized daily operation system, regional stability of service and organic industrial development. It also has the trend characteristics of increasingly obvious enterprise, decreasing absolute quantity, increasing scale strength, professional management team and diversified earnings distribution. Moreover, the farmer association system, perfect social security system, perfect social service system and good social credit system all over Germany constitute the "four rounds" to drive and guarantee the sustainable and healthy development of farmer cooperatives. Finally, the paper summarizes and analyzes the problems and challenges faced by the farmers' cooperatives in China, such as the unsynchronized growth of quantity and quality, the increase of heterogeneity of members, the imperfection of supporting policies, the lack of service-oriented cooperatives, and the indefinite debate on attributes, and proposes to promote the quality of farmers' cooperatives, conform to the declining quantity and the trend of enterprise development, and build a driving force for the development of farmers' cooperatives in China“ Four rounds "to encourage in-depth Union and cooperation among farmers.

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        • 收稿日期:2019-11-09
        • 最后修改日期:2020-01-13
        • 錄用日期:2020-06-10
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