1.College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University;2.Department of rural cooperative economic guidance, Ministry of agriculture of the people''s Republic of China,
Germany is one of the birthplaces of cooperatives. Based on a two-week special survey of German cooperatives, this paper focuses on the adaptive characteristics, trend characteristics and social system background of German farmers' cooperatives. It is found that the German farmers' cooperatives have the adaptability characteristics of complete hierarchical organization system, diversified and specialized industrial types, comprehensive and diversified service content, institutionalized daily operation system, regional stability of service and organic industrial development. It also has the trend characteristics of increasingly obvious enterprise, decreasing absolute quantity, increasing scale strength, professional management team and diversified earnings distribution. Moreover, the farmer association system, perfect social security system, perfect social service system and good social credit system all over Germany constitute the "four rounds" to drive and guarantee the sustainable and healthy development of farmer cooperatives. Finally, the paper summarizes and analyzes the problems and challenges faced by the farmers' cooperatives in China, such as the unsynchronized growth of quantity and quality, the increase of heterogeneity of members, the imperfection of supporting policies, the lack of service-oriented cooperatives, and the indefinite debate on attributes, and proposes to promote the quality of farmers' cooperatives, conform to the declining quantity and the trend of enterprise development, and build a driving force for the development of farmers' cooperatives in China“ Four rounds "to encourage in-depth Union and cooperation among farmers.