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      2. 從經驗積累到分工經濟:農業報酬遞增的演變邏輯
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        1.華南農業大學 經濟管理學院;2.華南農業大學 國家農業制度與發展研究院

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        國家社會科學基金重大項目(19ZDA115)、國家自然科學基金政策研究重點支持項目(71742003)


        From Experience Accumulation to Division of Labor: Evolutionary Logic of Increasing Return to Scale in Agriculture
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        1.South China Agricultural University College of Economics and Management;2.South China Agricultural University National School of Agricultural Institution and Development

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          摘要:

          傳統農業經濟理論認為,農業具有規模報酬不變的特征,這不僅與主流經濟學的內生技術進步和“干中學”等理論概念不符,也無法解釋傳統小農社會的“精耕細作”和現代農業分工帶來的農業增長。本文通過拓展Arrow和楊小凱構建的“干中學”理論模型,分析了無外生技術進步情形下,傳統小農社會和農業分工階段的農戶是如何通過調整農業種植結構和要素配置結構,實現“干中學”過程中的農業規模報酬遞增的。結果表明:(1)當不存在農業勞動力剛性約束時,農戶在租入農地或提高農作物種植頻率以充分利用農業勞動力的過程中,“干中學”會改善勞動生產效率并提高農業規模報酬;(2)進入農業勞動力非農轉移加速階段,農業勞動力剛性約束會使得農業規模報酬從“干中學”誘致的遞增階段進入遞減階段;(3)為克服農業勞動力的剛性約束,農戶會自發參與農業分工,由此加速農業“干中學”和提高農業專業化程度,并誘致農業規模報酬遞增。本文表明,農業并不是一個低效率的被動的產業。

          Abstract:

          Traditional theories in agricultural economics generally assume there is a constant return to scale in agriculture. Such an assumption is not only inconsistent with the concept of the endogenous technical change and the “learn by doing” models in neoclassical economics, but also can’t explain the agricultural growth caused by the intensive and meticulous farming practices in traditional peasant economy and the division of labor in modern agriculture. By expanding the “learn by doing” models developed by Arrow (1962) and Yang and Ng (1993), we analyzes how farmers can exercise their “learning by doing” to achieving the increasing return to scale by adjusting the planting structure and agricultural inputs in a traditional peasant economy and an era of agricultural division of labor without account of external technical change. The analytical results indicate that (1) without rigid constraint in agricultural labor, the “learning by doing” will improve labor productivity and increase return to scale through the expansion in the farming scale by renting more farmland or the increases in cropping index to fully use the excessive agricultural labor; (2) with rigid constraint in agricultural labor due to the labor migration from agricultural to non-agricultural sectors, the return to scale in agriculture can become decreasing after the increase induced by the learning by doing; (3) the division of labor in agriculture helps overcome the rigid constraint of agricultural labor and stimulates labor specialization and “learning by doing” that lead to the increasing return to scale in agriculture. The findings show that agriculture has never been a passive industry with low efficiency, but evolving industry with constant pursue of efficiency and growth.

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        • 收稿日期:2020-01-15
        • 最后修改日期:2020-03-23
        • 錄用日期:2020-05-03
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