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      2. 貧困戶需要交認知稅嗎? ——來自G省貧困戶思維模式的調查
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        1.廣州大學;2.廣州大學公共管理學院

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        國家社科基金一般項目“精準扶貧與貧困戶的社會適應研究”(項目編號:18BSH048);廣州市社科規劃課題智庫項目“面向區塊鏈技術的相對貧困治理研究”(2020GZZK05)。


        Do poor households need to pay cognitive tax? ——A survey of the thinking patterns of poor households in Province G
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        GUANGZHOU UNIVERSITY

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          摘要:

          “認知稅”實際上是一種隱喻,用以表述窮人受貧困情境的影響而在決策過程中所產生的短視化行為、被蒙昧的渴望和被錯失的良機,以及缺乏物質條件、社會支持和個人能力而消耗的額外認知資源。在此背景下,本文利用G省的實證調研數據,檢驗“認知稅”在中國精準扶貧場域的應用,發現貧困情景會導致思維認知短缺和僵化,這樣的思維認知尤其是脫貧思維認知和投資思維認知,與貧困戶文化水平、健康狀況、脫貧心理、語言技巧與行為選擇是明顯的負相關關系。同時,短缺的思維認知雖然會對貧困戶的文化、身體、心理、語言和行為都產生影響,但最關鍵的是影響貧困戶的心理、語言與行為,進而使其產生依賴心理,引發持續貧困。進一步考察發現,“認知稅”引發持續貧困的作用機理在于會導致窮人過度關注稀缺資源,產生注意力偏向,對生活缺乏信心與激情;造成貧困戶的認知負荷,使其錯失脫貧致富良機;教育重視不足,引發貧困代際傳遞。簡言之,本文的研究,一方面證實了貧困情景導致認知負荷與認知能力下降的“認知稅”在中國扶貧領域應用的適用性,另一方面又結合中國實際,對“認知稅”的本土化和中國化進行了探討。由此,豐富貧困戶的認知資源,是擺脫貧困的首要選擇。

          Abstract:

          "Cognitive tax" is actually a metaphor used to express the short-sighted behaviors, ignorant desires and missed opportunities in the decision-making process of the poor affected by poverty, and the lack of material conditions and social support. And additional cognitive resources consumed by personal abilities. In this context, this paper uses the empirical research data of Province G to test the application of "cognitive tax" in China's precision poverty alleviation field, and finds that poverty scenarios will lead to a shortage and rigidity of thinking cognition, such thinking cognition, especially thinking out of poverty Cognition and investment thinking cognition are obviously negatively correlated with poor households' education level, health status, poverty alleviation psychology, language skills and behavior choices. At the same time, although the shortage of thinking and cognition will affect the culture, body, psychology, language and behavior of the poor households, the most important thing is to affect the psychology, language and behavior of the poor households, which in turn makes them dependent on the psychology and triggers continued poor. Further investigation revealed that the mechanism of the persistent poverty caused by the "cognitive tax" is that it will cause the poor to pay too much attention to scarce resources, produce attentional bias, and lack confidence and passion for life; it will cause the cognitive load of poor households and make them miss the opportunity to get rich out of poverty. ; Insufficient attention to education, triggering intergenerational transmission of poverty. In short, the research in this paper confirms the applicability of the application of the “cognitive tax” in cognitive poverty and cognitive decline in poverty alleviation in China in the poverty alleviation field. The localization and localization of "tax" were discussed. Therefore, enriching the cognitive resources of poor households is the primary choice to get rid of poverty.

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        • 收稿日期:2020-04-25
        • 最后修改日期:2020-06-08
        • 錄用日期:2020-06-09
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